Premium SNP DNA profile (ISAG 2020)
The Premium SNP DNA-profile (ISAG 2020) is your animal's genetic fingerprint. It cannot be manipulated or destroyed, remains unchanged for a lifetime and allows unambiguous identification of the individual. All DNA-profiles are stored in our DNA database, thus ensuring continuous availability. The Premium SNP DNA-profile (ISAG 2020) follows the recommended ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) guidelines from 2020 by analyzing 230 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and enables international comparability between laboratories. Each SNP marker describes a specific location on the DNA. Test reliability and exclusion probabilities for parentage analysis are well over 99.99%. The Premium SNP DNA profile (ISAG 2020) also has the potential to solve parentage cases where only one parent is available (breeds on request) and furthermore allows an analysis of the genetic diversity and the heterozygosity of a dog with breed-specific evaluation (for clubs on request).
Please note: Premium SNP DNA-profile (ISAG 2020) and Classic STR DNA profiles (ISAG 2006) are not compatible and cannot be used simultaneously within the same parentage analysis.
4-6 weeks after arrival of the sample in the lab
LABOGEN Diversity Check (diversity.labogen.com)
The consequent avoidance of inbreeding is an important feature of responsible dog breeding. The genetic diversity of a population or breed reflects the degree of inbreeding it has experienced in the past. When inbreeding is avoided for many generations, it is reflected by a high level of genetic diversity. Especially in pedigree dogs, there may be an increased risk of inbreeding, for example due to closed stud books and excessive mating of “popular sires”. This is associated with a loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding depression, i.e. the accumulation of genetic variants that are harmful and cause disease. Health effects such as reduced immune competence or low reproductive success can also be signs of inbreeding depression.
The LABOGEN Diversity Check shows the genetic relationship of dogs of the same breed as your animal(s) and allows the identification of genetically unrelated individuals. In breeds with very low genetic diversity, inbreeding may also be present among unrelated animals due to the genetic uniformity within the breed. The LABOGEN Diversity Check helps to find suitable breeding partners and to avoid inbreeding.
In addition, the LABOGEN Diversity Check always shows the most up-to-date information on the distribution of heterozygosity in the breed or club population. This is another feature that can help to maintain a healthy population. The heterozygosity value indicates the genetic variability of the individual dog. Each individual inherits half of the genes from its mother and half from its father. The less genetically related the parents are, the higher may be the heterozygosity of the offspring.
With the LABOGEN Diversity Check, we offer support for maintaining and increasing genetic diversity in the long term and promote the health of future generations in a sustainable way. Simply order the Premium SNP DNA profile from LABOKLIN and get free access to the LABOGEN Diversity Check for your dog.
FAQs on Genetic Variability (Heterozygosity)
What is genetic diversity and why is it important?
Genetic diversity reflects the degree of inbreeding in a breed. The lower the genetic diversity, the more closely the animals of a breed are genetically related to each other. The risk of inbreeding and low genetic diversity is increased by closed stud books and small breeding populations. This is associated with negative effects such as inbreeding depression and the accumulation of genetic variants that are harmful and cause disease. Maintaining and increasing genetic diversity ensures the long-term health of future generations.
How is the genetic diversity calculated?
We calculate the genetic diversity using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We use the 230 SNPs of your dog’s genetic fingerprint (LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile) together with hundreds of other SNPs to calculate how genetically similar the animals of a breed or club are. The genetic distance between the animals is graphically displayed by PCoA (Principal Coordinate Analysis).
What does the genetic diversity chart of the LABOGEN Diversity Check show?
The genetic diversity chart shows the genetic relationship of your own animal (red square) to other animals (dots) of its breed or club. Each dot corresponds to one dog. The closer dogs are to each other in the chart, the more genetically similar they are. The more animals are unlocked to be shown in the chart, the more complete, useful and meaningful the chart becomes. If the owners of the dogs agree, you can see the name, breed, sex and date of birth when selecting individual items and thus find potentially interesting breeding partners. If you already have candidates for breeding, the LABOGEN Diversity Check can show how closely genetically related they are to your own animal. You can contact each other by e-mail to express interest. Maybe you will also find littermates or other close relatives of your dog and arrange to go for a walk?!
What does the heterozygosity (genetic variability) chart of the LABOGEN Diversity Check show?
This graph shows the genetic variability (heterozygosity) of your animal. Heterozygosity describes the percentage of genetic markers (SNPs) for which your dog has inherited different variants from its mother and its father. According to current scientific knowledge, dogs with a high degree of heterozygosity within a breed are less often affected by inbreeding than dogs with a low degree of heterozygosity. For calculating the heterozygosity, we use the genetic fingerprint (the LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile) and hundreds of other genetic markers in your dog’s DNA. In the graph, your dog is marked with a cross and a black solid line. Once LABOKLIN has examined a sufficiently large reference population for your breed, you can see the genetic variability of the entire breed population as an area shaded in orange. The mean value of the breed is marked as a grey dashed line. Small population sizes and inbreeding can decrease the heterozygosity of a breed. When breeding, animals with a high degree of heterozygosity within their breed might thus contribute to the preservation of the breed’s genetic diversity. However, please note that heterozygosity cannot be used to draw any conclusions about individual factors such as genetic diseases or characteristics like coat colour. Maintaining genetic variability can be a building block in responsible dog breeding, but it should not be viewed in isolation.
How do we calculate the heterozygosity value?
We use several hundred SNPs, including the 230 SNPs of your dog’s genetic fingerprint (the LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile). For each SNP, we determine if it is homozygous or heterozygous. An SNP is homozygous if your dog has inherited the same variant from its mother and its father. An SNP is heterozygous if your dog got different variants from both parents. We then calculate the percentage of all the SNPs for which your dog is heterozygous. This value is called heterozygosity.
How do I interpret values when I do not see a curve in the heterozygosity graph?
The heterozygosity of your own dog can be compared to values of other dogs of your breed that have been genotyped with the LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile. When comparing animals within one breed, dogs with a high degree of heterozygosity are less often affected by inbreeding than dogs with a low degree of heterozygosity according to current scientific knowledge. However, heterozygosity should not be overrated in breeding. Breeding decisions should mainly be based on a breed’s genetic diseases. It may further be beneficial to consider the preservation of a breed’s genetic diversity, too.
What does the axis label of the graph in the LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile mean?
The figures below the graph show the possible range of your dog’s heterozygosity. They indicate percentages from 0% to 60%. Theoretically, values up to 100% are possible. However, values above 60% are extremely unlikely and thus not shown. Should your animal have a heterozygosity value higher than 60%, you will find the exact value in the box at the top right.
How do I use the activation code on my findings? How do I register for the LABOGEN Diversity Check?
You will receive an activation code when you order a LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile (ISAG 2020). It is used to display the LABOGEN Diversity Check online at diversity.labogen.com. Please log in here first with your data from the LABOGEN webshop (shop.labogen.com/en/). If you have not yet created an account with us, you can register at shop.labogen.com/en/account
What is the difference between breed distribution and club distribution?
LABOKLIN offers to test animals in breeding clubs independently of other animals of the same breed. Interested clubs are welcome to contact us at any time to set up such a service (shop.labogen.com/en/forms/index/sFid/5).
Which test do I need to order to have the genetic diversity or my animal’s heterozygosity tested?
When you order a Premium SNP DNA profile for your dog from LABOKLIN, we calculate your animal’s heterozygosity free of charge and your animal is included in the calculation of the genetic diversity. You can see the results in the LABOGEN Diversity Check.
Which sample material is needed?
For the LABOGEN Premium SNP DNA profile, we highly recommend submitting an EDTA blood sample.
How long does it take before I get the results?
The regular test duration is 4 – 6 weeks after receipt of the sample.